4D Printing also known as Active Origami or Shape Morphing System uses the same technique as 3D Printing by depositing computer-programmed material on a continuous layer of 3D objects however with 4D printing, the resulting 3D shape can be transformed into a variety of shapes in response to environmental stimuli. The 4th dimension is the time-dependent shape change after printing. Therefore, it is a kind of programmable matter in which the printed matter reacts to environmental parameters like humidity, temperature, voltage, etc. After the manufacturing process and its shape changes accordingly.
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Associations & societies
American Crystallographic Association | International Union of Crystallography | European Crystallographic Association | British Crystallographic Association | International Council for Science | German Crystallographic Association | German Crystallographic Association