Aquaculture and Fisheries involves cultivating freshwater, brackish water and saltwater populations under controlled or semi-natural conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish.
Sustainable aquaculture can be defined as the aquaculture practice which focuses on environmental, economic, and social sustainability to improve capacity building and utilize land effectively for the aquaculture sector.
Three types of aquaculture systems are land-based, freshwater, and saltwater. Each type has its own specific benefits and drawbacks. Land-based systems are generally less expensive to build but are more vulnerable to environmental variations.
Fish and seafood are very good sources of protein. Aquaculture has contributed to increasing fish production, and it has emerged as the best alternative food source for many. Moreover, it makes seafood cheaper and accessible to all.
Freshwater aquaculture is the growing of fish in ponds. Growing fish in ponds, from which they cannot escape, allows feeding, breeding, growing, and harvesting the fish in a well-planned way. Fish culture is one form of aquaculture.
Marine water aquaculture refers to the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of aquatic plants and animals. It can take place in the ocean, or on land in tanks and ponds. Marine aquaculture in few countries produces primarily oysters, clams, mussels, shrimps, salmon and other marine fish.
Water pollution, improper aquaculture management, tainted native germplasm resources, freshwater aquaculture are some of the challenges faced by fishermen in India. Environmental degradation also poses a major threat to the sustainability of inland fisheries.
New data processing technologies in fisheries include big data, block chain, smart weighing at sea, radio-frequency identification (RFID), smartphones for monitoring, artificial intelligence, drones, and on-board cameras.
Aquaculture nutrition and fish feed are essential components of the aquaculture industry, which involves the farming of aquatic organisms, such as fish, shrimp, and shellfish, for food production. Proper nutrition plays a critical role in the growth, health, and overall performance of farmed aquatic species.
The nutritional diseases of fish may occur as a result of deficiency, excess or imbalance of nutrients. In general, nutritional disease develops gradually because animals can reserve some nutrients in their body up to certain extent to fill up the nutritional deficiency.
Aquatic toxicology generally involves the measurement of contaminant levels and assessment of harm to freshwater and/or marine organisms to characterize the hazards imposed on the aquatic environment.
The primary aim of aquaculture engineering is to utilize technical engineering knowledge and principles in aquaculture and biological production systems. The production of fish has little in common with the production of nails, but the same technology can be used in both production systems.
The goal of fisheries management is to produce sustainable biological, environmental and socioeconomic benefits from renewable aquatic resources. Wild fisheries are classified as renewable when the organisms of interest (e.g., fish, shellfish, amphibians, reptiles and marine mammals) produce an annual biological surplus that with judicious management can be harvested without reducing future productivity.
Integrated aquaculture is the concurrent or sequential linkage between two or more farm activities, of which at least one is aquaculture. Main objective is to increase the productivity of water, land and associated resources while contributing to increased food fish production.
Aquaculture conservation and management involve sustainable practices to ensure the responsible cultivation of aquatic organisms. This includes regulating stock levels, environmental impact, and resource use.
Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns. These shifts may be natural, but since the 1800s, human activities have been the main driver of climate change, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels (like coal, oil, and gas), which produces heat-trapping gases.
Trade practice is a method of competition, operating policy (as the use of standards of size, shape, and quality of materials), or business procedure common to members of a line of business or industry that may be formally adopted sometimes as a rule under government auspices.
Livestock production can also be stationary and larger scale. In many cases, it can be combined with farming. In fact, a typical farm operation may combine the tasks of crop production and harvesting, livestock rearing and handling, and manure disposal.
Aquaculture is an environmentally responsible source of food and commercial products, helps to create healthier habitats, and is used to rebuild stocks of threatened or endangered species.
Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, or IMTA, is like polyculture, where two or more organisms are farmed together. In IMTA, multiple aquatic species from different trophic levels are farmed in an integrated fashion to improve efficiency, reduce waste, and provide ecosystem services, such as bioremediation.
Recirculating aquaculture systems are indoor, tank-based systems in which fish are grown at high density under controlled environmental conditions. Generally, farmers adopt a more intensive approach (higher densities and more rigorous management) than other aquaculture production systems.
Seaweed mariculture has been defined as the cultivation, management, and harvesting of marine organisms in their natural environment (including estuarine, brackish, coastal, and offshore waters) or in enclosures such as pens, tanks, or channels.
Finfish farming mail aim is to double the income of coastal fishermen and fish farmers. Aquatic vertebrate’s tilapia, hybrid striped bass, barramundi (“Australian sea bass”), yellow perch, sturgeon, and eel are well suited to closed recirculating systems. Marine fin fish culture is one of the world's fastest expanding aquaculture sub-sectors due to its high nutritional profile and strong demand in the seafood basket in fish markets across the world.
Ornamental fish cultivation both indigenous and exotic is the practice of raising attractive, colourful fish with a variety of features in a limited aquatic setting in fresh water which is a foreign exchange earner.
Aquaculture biotechnology, marine biotechnology, algal biotechnology, and processing biotechnology are the four broad categories of fisheries biotechnology to increase fish production. Bioinformatics involves integrating gene-based information and computational technology to produce new knowledge for the benefit of aquaculture. Bioinformatics provides new opportunities as well as challenges for information and data processing in new generation aquaculture.
Remote sensing provides a powerful way to collect data in real time from large areas used to monitor water quality and temperature, detect changes in sea level, detect pollution and track fish populations.
Social-economic interactions based on aquatic environments are integral to the livelihoods and well-being of many communities around the world. These interactions encompass various aspects of human life, economics, and culture, often centred around aquatic resources.
Minimizing stress in low-tech transportation can be crucial for ensuring the safe and efficient movement of people and goods. Below are some of the techniques